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Benjamin Greenhagen

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Planetary Scientist
  • B.S., Geophysics
    2003, University of Minnesota
  • B.S., Geology
    2003, University of Minnesota
  • M.S., Earth and Planetary Science
    2005, Washington University in St. Louis
  • Ph.D., Geology (Planetology)
    2009, University of California, Los Angeles

I am a scientist specializing in thermal emission spectroscopy from planetary surfaces. I am interested in the composition and physical structure of solid surfaces and what those properties can tell us about the formation and evolution of their parent bodies.  Much of my time is currently spent working on the Moon as the Deputy Principal Investigator of the Diviner Lunar Radiometer onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. I'm also working as a Co-Investigator on a new small satellite mission, Lunar Flashlight, which is currently in development.  My involvement as a Co-Investigator with the VORTICES node of SSERVI enables me to expand my research to cover the Moon, near earth objects, and the moons of Mars.  I also run the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) where we can create lunar and asteroidal relevant environments here at APL. Finally, I help develop remote sensing instrumentation and have been involved in a number of proposals for missions and instruments to study a broad range of planetary bodies in our inner and outer solar system.

Notable Awards and Leadership

Year(s) Description
2012 - Present Founding Member, Young Scientists for Planetary Exploration
2012 - Present Leadership Council, Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers
2009 - Present Member, Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers
2012-2016 University of Oxford, Department of Physics (AOPP) Visiting Fellow
2014 - 2014 Lunar Exploration Analysis Group, Strategic Action Team
2013 - 2014 Keck Institute for Space Studies, New Approaches to Lunar Ice Detection and Mapping
2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 NASA Group Achievement Awards (LRO Diviner)
2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 NASA Group Achievement Awards (LRO)
2009 NASA Group Achievement Awards (MCS)

Scholarly Publications

Impact Melt Facies in the Moon's Crisium Basin: Identifying, Characterizing, and Future Radiogenic Dating

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2019
K.D. Runyon, D. Moriarty, B.W. Denevi, B.T. Greenhagen, G. Morgan, K.E. Young, B.A. Cohen, C.H. Bogert, H. Hiesinger, L.M. Jozwiak, (2019), Impact Melt Facies in the Moon's Crisium Basin: Identifying, Characterizing, and Future Radiogenic Dating, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019je006024

Evidence for ultra-cold traps and surface water ice in the lunar south polar crater Amundsen

Icarus, 2019
E. Sefton-Nash, J.-P. Williams, B.T. Greenhagen, T.J. Warren, J.L. Bandfield, K.-M. Aye, F. Leader, M.A. Siegler, P.O. Hayne, N. Bowles, D.A. Paige, (2019), Evidence for ultra-cold traps and surface water ice in the lunar south polar crater Amundsen, Icarus, 332, 1--13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2019.06.002

Seasonal Polar Temperatures on the Moon

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2019
J.‐P. Williams, B. T. Greenhagen, D. A. Paige, N. Schorghofer, E. Sefton‐Nash, P. O. Hayne, P. G. Lucey, M. A. Siegler, K. Michael Aye, (2019), Seasonal Polar Temperatures on the Moon, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 124, 10, 2505--2521, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019je006028

A New Method for Simulation of Lunar Microwave Brightness Temperatures and Evaluation of Chang'E‐2 MRM Data Using Thermal Constraints From Diviner

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2019
Guangfei Wei, Xiongyao Li, Hong Gan, David T. Blewett, Catherine D. Neish, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, (2019), A New Method for Simulation of Lunar Microwave Brightness Temperatures and Evaluation of Chang'E-2 MRM Data Using Thermal Constraints From Diviner, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018je005858

Diurnally Migrating Lunar Water: Evidence From Ultraviolet Data

Geophysical Research Letters, 2019
Amanda R. Hendrix, Dana M. Hurley, William M. Farrell, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Paul O. Hayne, Kurt D. Retherford, Faith Vilas, Joshua T. S. Cahill, Michael J. Poston, Yang Liu, (2019), Diurnally Migrating Lunar Water: Evidence From Ultraviolet Data, Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 5, 2417--2424, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018gl081821

An Examination of Several Discrete Lunar Nearside Photometric Anomalies Observed in Lyman‐α Maps

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2019
Joshua T. S. Cahill, Anna A. Wirth, Amanda R. Hendrix, Kurt D. Retherford, Thomas K. Greathouse, Kathleen E. Mandt, Yang Liu, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Brett W. Denevi, Angela M. Stickle, Dana M. Hurley, (2019), An Examination of Several Discrete Lunar Nearside Photometric Anomalies Observed in Lyman-$upalpha$ Maps, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 124, 2, 294--315, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018je005754

CASTAway: An asteroid main belt tour and survey

Advances in Space Research, 2018
N.E. Bowles, C. Snodgrass, A. Gibbings, J.P. Sanchez, J.A. Arnold, P. Eccleston, T. Andert, A. Probst, G. Naletto, A.C. Vandaele, J. de Leon, A. Nathues, I.R. Thomas, N. Thomas, L. Jorda, V. Da Deppo, H. Haack, S.F. Green, B. Carry, K.L. Donaldson Hanna, J. Leif Jorgensen, A. Kereszturi, F.E. DeMeo, M.R. Patel, J.K. Davies, F. Clarke, K. Kinch, A. Guilbert-Lepoutre, J. Agarwal, A.S. Rivkin, P. Pravec, S. Fornasier, M. Granvik, R.H. Jones, N. Murdoch, K.H. Joy, E. Pascale, M. Tecza, J.M. Barnes, J. Licandro, B.T. Greenhagen, S.B. Calcutt, C.M. Marriner, T. Warren, I. Tosh, (2018), CASTAway: An asteroid main belt tour and survey, Advances in Space Research, 62, 8, 1998--2025, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.021

Lunar Cold Spots and Crater Production on the Moon

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2018
J.-P. Williams, J. L. Bandfield, D. A. Paige, T. M. Powell, B. T. Greenhagen, S. Taylor, P. O. Hayne, E. J. Speyerer, R. R. Ghent, E. S. Costello, (2018), Lunar Cold Spots and Crater Production on the Moon, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 123, 9, 2380--2392, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018je005652

Evidence for surface water ice in the lunar polar regions using reflectance measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and temperature measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

Icarus, 2017
Elizabeth A. Fisher, Paul G. Lucey, Myriam Lemelin, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Matthew A. Siegler, Erwan Mazarico, Oded Aharonson, Jean-Pierre Williams, Paul O. Hayne, Gregory A. Neumann, David A. Paige, David E Smith, Maria T. Zuber, (2017), Evidence for surface water ice in the lunar polar regions using reflectance measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and temperature measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, Icarus, 292, 74--85, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2017.03.023

Effects of varying environmental conditions on emissivity spectra of bulk lunar soils: Application to Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Moon

Icarus, 2017
K.L. Donaldson Hanna, B.T. Greenhagen, W.R. Patterson, C.M. Pieters, J.F. Mustard, N.E. Bowles, D.A. Paige, T.D. Glotch, C. Thompson, (2017), Effects of varying environmental conditions on emissivity spectra of bulk lunar soils: Application to Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Moon, Icarus, 283, 326--342, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.05.034

The global surface temperatures of the Moon as measured by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

Icarus, 2017
J.-P. Williams, D.A. Paige, B.T. Greenhagen, E. Sefton-Nash, (2017), The global surface temperatures of the Moon as measured by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, Icarus, 283, 300--325, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.08.012

Global Regolith Thermophysical Properties of the Moon From the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2017
Paul O. Hayne, Joshua L. Bandfield, Matthew A. Siegler, Ashwin R. Vasavada, Rebecca R. Ghent, Jean-Pierre Williams, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Oded Aharonson, Catherine M. Elder, Paul G. Lucey, David A. Paige, (2017), Global Regolith Thermophysical Properties of the Moon From the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 122, 12, 2371--2400, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017je005387

Diviner lunar radiometer gridded brightness temperatures from geodesic binning of modeled fields of view

Icarus, 2017
E. Sefton-Nash, J.-P. Williams, B.T. Greenhagen, K.-M. Aye, D.A. Paige, (2017), Diviner lunar radiometer gridded brightness temperatures from geodesic binning of modeled fields of view, Icarus, 298, 98--110, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2017.04.007

Space weathering effects in Diviner Lunar Radiometer multispectral infrared measurements of the lunar Christiansen Feature: Characteristics and mitigation

Icarus, 2017
Paul G. Lucey, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Eugenie Song, Jessica A. Arnold, Myriam Lemelin, Kerri Donaldson Hanna, Neil E. Bowles, Timothy D. Glotch, David A. Paige, (2017), Space weathering effects in Diviner Lunar Radiometer multispectral infrared measurements of the lunar Christiansen Feature: Characteristics and mitigation, Icarus, 283, 343--351, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.05.010

Complex explosive volcanic activity on the Moon within Oppenheimer crater

Icarus, 2016
Kristen A. Bennett, Briony H.N. Horgan, Lisa R. Gaddis, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Carlton C. Allen, Paul O. Hayne, James F. Bell, David A. Paige, (2016), Complex explosive volcanic activity on the Moon within Oppenheimer crater, Icarus, 273, 296--314, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.02.007

The Lassell massif—A silicic lunar volcano

Icarus, 2016
J.W. Ashley, M.S. Robinson, J.D. Stopar, T.D. Glotch, B. Ray Hawke, C.H. van der Bogert, H. Hiesinger, S.J. Lawrence, B.L. Jolliff, B.T. Greenhagen, T.A. Giguere, D.A. Paige, (2016), The Lassell massiftextemdashA silicic lunar volcano, Icarus, 273, 248--261, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2015.12.036

Origin of the anomalously rocky appearance of Tsiolkovskiy crater

Icarus, 2016
Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Catherine D. Neish, Jean-Pierre Williams, Joshua T.S. Cahill, Rebecca R. Ghent, Paul O. Hayne, Samuel J. Lawrence, Noah E. Petro, Joshua L. Bandfield, (2016), Origin of the anomalously rocky appearance of Tsiolkovskiy crater, Icarus, 273, 237--247, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.02.041

Constraints on olivine-rich rock types on the Moon as observed by Diviner and M3: Implications for the formation of the lunar crust

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2016
J. A. Arnold, T. D. Glotch, P. G. Lucey, E. Song, I. R. Thomas, N. E. Bowles, B. T. Greenhagen, (2016), Constraints on olivine-rich rock types on the Moon as observed by Diviner and M3: Implications for the formation of the lunar crust, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 121, 7, 1342--1361, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015je004874

An analytic function of lunar surface temperature for exospheric modeling

Icarus, 2015
Dana M. Hurley, Menelaos Sarantos, Cesare Grava, Jean-Pierre Williams, Kurt D. Retherford, Matthew Siegler, Benjamin Greenhagen, David Paige, (2015), An analytic function of lunar surface temperature for exospheric modeling, Icarus, 255, 159--163, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2014.08.043

Bulk hydrogen abundances in the lunar highlands: Measurements from orbital neutron data

Icarus, 2015
David J. Lawrence, Patrick N. Peplowski, Jeffrey B. Plescia, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Sylvestre Maurice, Thomas H. Prettyman, (2015), Bulk hydrogen abundances in the lunar highlands: Measurements from orbital neutron data, Icarus, 255, 127--134, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2015.01.005

Evidence for exposed water ice in the Moon’s south polar regions from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter ultraviolet albedo and temperature measurements

Icarus, 2015
Paul O. Hayne, Amanda Hendrix, Elliot Sefton-Nash, Matthew A. Siegler, Paul G. Lucey, Kurt D. Retherford, Jean-Pierre Williams, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, David A. Paige, (2015), Evidence for exposed water ice in the Moon's south polar regions from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter ultraviolet albedo and temperature measurements, Icarus, 255, 58--69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2015.03.032

Lunar surface roughness derived from LRO Diviner Radiometer observations

Icarus, 2015
Joshua L. Bandfield, Paul O. Hayne, Jean-Pierre Williams, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, David A. Paige, (2015), Lunar surface roughness derived from LRO Diviner Radiometer observations, Icarus, 248, 357--372, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2014.11.009

Formation of lunar swirls by magnetic field standoff of the solar wind

Nature Communications, 2015
Timothy D. Glotch, Joshua L. Bandfield, Paul G. Lucey, Paul O. Hayne, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Jessica A. Arnold, Rebecca R. Ghent, David A. Paige, (2015), Formation of lunar swirls by magnetic field standoff of the solar wind, Nature Communications, 6, 1, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7189

Global assessment of pure crystalline plagioclase across the Moon and implications for the evolution of the primary crust

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2014
K. L. Donaldson Hanna, L. C. Cheek, C. M. Pieters, J. F. Mustard, B. T. Greenhagen, I. R. Thomas, N. E. Bowles, (2014), Global assessment of pure crystalline plagioclase across the Moon and implications for the evolution of the primary crust, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 119, 7, 1516--1545, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013je004476

Bulk mineralogy of lunar crater central peaks via thermal infrared spectra from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer: A study of the Moon's crustal composition at depth

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2013
Eugenie Song, Joshua L. Bandfield, Paul G. Lucey, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, David A. Paige, (2013), Bulk mineralogy of lunar crater central peaks via thermal infrared spectra from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer: A study of the Moon's crustal composition at depth, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 118, 4, 689--707, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20065

LRO observations of morphology and surface roughness of volcanic cones and lobate lava flows in the Marius Hills

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2013
Samuel J. Lawrence, Julie D. Stopar, B. Ray Hawke, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Joshua T. S. Cahill, Joshua L. Bandfield, Bradley L. Jolliff, Brett W. Denevi, Mark S. Robinson, Timothy D. Glotch, D. Benjamin J. Bussey, Paul D. Spudis, Thomas A. Giguere, W. Brent Garry, (2013), LRO observations of morphology and surface roughness of volcanic cones and lobate lava flows in the Marius Hills, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 118, 4, 615--634, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20060

Mapping and characterization of non-polar permanent shadows on the lunar surface

Icarus, 2013
J. Andrew McGovern, D. Benjamin Bussey, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, David A. Paige, Joshua T.S. Cahill, Paul D. Spudis, (2013), Mapping and characterization of non-polar permanent shadows on the lunar surface, Icarus, 223, 1, 566--581, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2012.10.018

Laboratory emissivity measurements of the plagioclase solid solution series under varying environmental conditions

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2012
K. L. Donaldson Hanna, I. R. Thomas, N. E. Bowles, B. T. Greenhagen, C. M. Pieters, J. F. Mustard, C. R. M. Jackson, M. B. Wyatt, (2012), Laboratory emissivity measurements of the plagioclase solid solution series under varying environmental conditions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 117, E11, n/a--n/a, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012je004184

Analysis of lunar pyroclastic deposit FeO abundances by LRO Diviner

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2012
Carlton C. Allen, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Kerri L. Donaldson Hanna, David A. Paige, (2012), Analysis of lunar pyroclastic deposit FeO abundances by LRO Diviner, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 117, E12, n/a--n/a, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011je003982

Lunar equatorial surface temperatures and regolith properties from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2012
Ashwin R. Vasavada, Joshua L. Bandfield, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Paul O. Hayne, Matthew A. Siegler, Jean-Pierre Williams, David A. Paige, (2012), Lunar equatorial surface temperatures and regolith properties from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 117, E12, n/a--n/a, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011je003987

A new experimental setup for making thermal emission measurements in a simulated lunar environment

Review of Scientific Instruments, 2012
I. R. Thomas, B. T. Greenhagen, N. E. Bowles, K. L. Donaldson Hanna, J. Temple, S. B. Calcutt, (2012), A new experimental setup for making thermal emission measurements in a simulated lunar environment, Review of Scientific Instruments, 83, 12, 124502, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4769084

Thermal infrared emissivity measurements under a simulated lunar environment: Application to the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2012
Kerri L. Donaldson Hanna, Michael B. Wyatt, Ian R. Thomas, Neil E. Bowles, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Alessandro Maturilli, Joern Helbert, David A. Paige, (2012), Thermal infrared emissivity measurements under a simulated lunar environment: Application to the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 117, E12, n/a--n/a, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011je003862

Non-mare silicic volcanism on the lunar farside at Compton–Belkovich

Nature Geoscience, 2011
Bradley L. Jolliff, Sandra A. Wiseman, Samuel J. Lawrence, Thanh N. Tran, Mark S. Robinson, Hiroyuki Sato, B. Ray Hawke, Frank Scholten, Jürgen Oberst, Harald Hiesinger, Carolyn H. van der Bogert, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Timothy D. Glotch, David A. Paige, (2011), Non-mare silicic volcanism on the lunar farside at ComptontextendashBelkovich, Nature Geoscience, 4, 8, 566--571, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1212

Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations of the LCROSS Impact

Science, 2010
P. O. Hayne, B. T. Greenhagen, M. C. Foote, M. A. Siegler, A. R. Vasavada, D. A. Paige, (2010), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations of the LCROSS Impact, Science, 330, 6003, 477--479, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1197135

Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations of Cold Traps in the Moon's South Polar Region

Science, 2010
D. A. Paige, M. A. Siegler, J. A. Zhang, P. O. Hayne, E. J. Foote, K. A. Bennett, A. R. Vasavada, B. T. Greenhagen, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, M. C. Foote, E. DeJong, B. G. Bills, W. Hartford, B. C. Murray, C. C. Allen, K. Snook, L. A. Soderblom, S. Calcutt, F. W. Taylor, N. E. Bowles, J. L. Bandfield, R. Elphic, R. Ghent, T. D. Glotch, M. B. Wyatt, P. G. Lucey, (2010), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations of Cold Traps in the Moon's South Polar Region, Science, 330, 6003, 479--482, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1187726

Highly Silicic Compositions on the Moon

Science, 2010
T. D. Glotch, P. G. Lucey, J. L. Bandfield, B. T. Greenhagen, I. R. Thomas, R. C. Elphic, N. Bowles, M. B. Wyatt, C. C. Allen, K. D. Hanna, D. A. Paige, (2010), Highly Silicic Compositions on the Moon, Science, 329, 5998, 1510--1513, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1192148

Global Silicate Mineralogy of the Moon from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

Science, 2010
B. T. Greenhagen, P. G. Lucey, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, C. C. Allen, J. A. Arnold, J. L. Bandfield, N. E. Bowles, K. L. D. Hanna, P. O. Hayne, E. Song, I. R. Thomas, D. A. Paige, (2010), Global Silicate Mineralogy of the Moon from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer, Science, 329, 5998, 1507--1509, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1192196

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

Space Science Reviews, 2009
D. A. Paige, M. C. Foote, B. T. Greenhagen, J. T. Schofield, S. Calcutt, A. R. Vasavada, D. J. Preston, F. W. Taylor, C. C. Allen, K. J. Snook, B. M. Jakosky, B. C. Murray, L. A. Soderblom, B. Jau, S. Loring, J. Bulharowski, N. E. Bowles, I. R. Thomas, M. T. Sullivan, C. Avis, E. M. De Jong, W. Hartford, D. J. McCleese, (2009), The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, Space Science Reviews, 150, 1-4, 125--160, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-009-9529-2