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Franklin Turner

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Software Engineer
  • M.S., Mathematics
    1998, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
  • B.S., Applied Mathematics
    1996, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Franklin "Scott" Turner is a software engineer that architects and implements systems to tackle complex problems arising in instrument operations in space, including: planning, visualization, data reduction, and calibration.  He designs tools for proposal and instrument development efforts that simulate sensor response and enable the exploration and evaluation of operational concepts.  An expert in the usage of SPICE, NASA's planatary observation geometry information system, Scott has built software that automated the commanding of the Cassini/MIMI instrument, geometrically calibrated the MESSENGER/MDIS imagers and pivot system from in-flight stellar observations, and designed the first LRO/Mini-RF bistatic synthetic aperature radar observations of the lunar surface.

Notable Awards and Leadership

Year(s) Description
2009 Exceptional Space Act Award, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Scholarly Publications

An Improved Visualization of Mini-RF Bistatic Targeting Geometry

4th Planetary Data Workshop, 2019
Poffenbarger, R.~T. and Turner, F.~S. and Jensen, B.~R. and Patterson, G.~W. and O'Shea, C.~M. and Espiritu, R.~C., (2019), An Improved Visualization of Mini-RF Bistatic Targeting Geometry, 4th Planetary Data Workshop, 2151, 7097

Time-Domain Back-Projection Image Processing for Mini-RF: Accelerating Computation Performance with a GPU

4th Planetary Data Workshop, 2019
Turner, F.~S. and Dutton, N.~T. and Patterson, G.~W., (2019), Time-Domain Back-Projection Image Processing for Mini-RF: Accelerating Computation Performance with a GPU, 4th Planetary Data Workshop, 2151, 7075

An Integrated Solution to Display Large Images at Full Resolution

4th Planetary Data Workshop, 2019
Turner, J.~E. and Turner, F.~S. and O'Shea, M.~O. and Patterson, G.~W., (2019), An Integrated Solution to Display Large Images at Full Resolution, 4th Planetary Data Workshop, 2151, 7064

An Efficient Algorithm for Calculating the Intersection of Two or More Convex Cones

4th Planetary Data Workshop, 2019
O'Shea, C.~M. and Turner, F.~S. and Turner, J.~E. and Turtle, E.~P. and Patterson, G.~W., (2019), An Efficient Algorithm for Calculating the Intersection of Two or More Convex Cones, 4th Planetary Data Workshop, 2151, 7036

Detection and Characterization of Present Day Lunar Impact Craters with Mini-RF/Goldstone X-Band Bistatic Observations

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2018
Cahill, J.~T.~S. and Patterson, G.~W. and Turner, F.~S. and Morgan, G.~A. and Stickle, A.~M. and Speyerer, E.~J. and Espiritu, R. and Thomson, B.~J. and Mini-RF Team, (2018), Detection and Characterization of Present Day Lunar Impact Craters with Mini-RF/Goldstone X-Band Bistatic Observations, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2693

Calibration, Projection, and Final Image Products of MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System

ßr, 2018
Denevi, Brett W. and Chabot, Nancy L. and Murchie, Scott L. and Becker, Kris J. and Blewett, David T. and Domingue, Deborah L. and Ernst, Carolyn M. and Hash, Christopher D. and Hawkins, S. Edward and Keller, Mary R. and Laslo, Nori R. and Nair, Hari and Robinson, Mark S. and Seelos, Frank P. and Stephens, Grant K. and Turner, F. Scott and Solomon, Sean C., (2018), Calibration, Projection, and Final Image Products of MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System, ssr, 214, 1, 2

Mini-RF S- and X-Band Bistatic Radar Observations of South Polar Craters on the Moon and their Implications for the Presence of Water Ice

AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2017
Patterson, G. and Stickle, A.~M. and Cahill, J.~T. and Turner, F.~S. and Jensen, J.~R., (2017), Mini-RF S- and X-Band Bistatic Radar Observations of South Polar Craters on the Moon and their Implications for the Presence of Water Ice, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2017, P13B-2562

Surveying the Lunar Surface for New Craters with Mini-RF/Goldstone X-Band Bistatic Observations

AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2017
Cahill, J.~T. and Patterson, G. and Turner, F.~S. and Morgan, G. and Stickle, A.~M. and Speyerer, E.~J. and Espiritu, R.~C. and Thomson, B.~J., (2017), Surveying the Lunar Surface for New Craters with Mini-RF/Goldstone X-Band Bistatic Observations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2017, P13B-2563

SPADER - Science Planning Analysis and Data Estimation Resource for the NASA Parker Solar Probe Mission

AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2017
Rodgers, D.~J. and Fox, N.~J. and Kusterer, M.~B. and Turner, F.~S. and Woleslagle, A.~B., (2017), SPADER - Science Planning Analysis and Data Estimation Resource for the NASA Parker Solar Probe Mission, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2017, SH23D-2678

Mini-RF S- and X-band Bistatic Observations of the Floor of Cabeus Crater

AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #49, 2017
Patterson, Gerald Wesley and Stickle, Angela and Turner, Franklin and Jensen, James and Cahill, Joshua and Mini-RF Team, (2017), Mini-RF S- and X-band Bistatic Observations of the Floor of Cabeus Crater, AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #49, 404.07

Mini-RF Image Processing and Data Product Generation

Third Planetary Data Workshop and The Planetary Geologic Mappers Annual Meeting, 2017
Turner, F.~S. and Espiritu, R.~C. and Patterson, G.~W. and Stickle, A.~M. and Cahill, J.~T.~S., (2017), Mini-RF Image Processing and Data Product Generation, Third Planetary Data Workshop and The Planetary Geologic Mappers Annual Meeting, 1986, 7062

Bistatic radar observations of the Moon using Mini-RF on LRO and the Arecibo Observatory

ıcarus, 2017
Patterson, G.~W. and Stickle, A.~M. and Turner, F.~S. and Jensen, J.~R. and Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Spudis, P. and Espiritu, R.~C. and Schulze, R.~C. and Yocky, D.~A. and Wahl, D.~E. and Zimmerman, M. and Cahill, J.~T.~S. and Nolan, M. and Carter, L. and Neish, C.~D. and Raney, R.~K. and Thomson, B.~J. and Kirk, R. and Thompson, T.~W. and Tise, B.~L. and Erteza, I.~A. and Jakowatz, C.~V., (2017), Bistatic radar observations of the Moon using Mini-RF on LRO and the Arecibo Observatory, icarus, 283, 2-19

Science Planning and Orbit Classification for Solar Probe Plus

AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2016
Kusterer, M.~B. and Fox, N.~J. and Rodgers, D.~J. and Turner, F.~S., (2016), Science Planning and Orbit Classification for Solar Probe Plus, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, SH43B-2560

Mini-RF on LRO and Arecibo Observatory Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon

New Views of the Moon 2, 2016
Patterson, G.~W. and Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Stickle, A.~M. and Turner, F.~S. and Jensen, J.~R. and Nolan, M. and Yocky, D.~A. and Wahl, D.~E. and Mini-RF Team, (2016), Mini-RF on LRO and Arecibo Observatory Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon, New Views of the Moon 2, 1911, 6042

Mini-RF/AO Bistatic Observations of the Floor of Cabeus Crater and Their Implications for the Presence of Water Ice

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2016
Patterson, G.~W. and Stickle, A.~M. and Turner, F.~S. and Jensen, J.~R. and Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Spudis, P. and Espiritu, R.~C. and Schulze, R.~C. and Yocky, D.~A. and Wahl, D.~E. and Zimmerman, M. and Cahill, J.~T.~S. and Nolan, M. and Carter, L. and Neish, C.~D. and Raney, R.~K. and Thomson, B.~J. and Kirk, R. and Thompson, T.~W. and Tise, B.~L. and Erteza, I.~A. and Jakowatz, C.~V., (2016), Mini-RF/AO Bistatic Observations of the Floor of Cabeus Crater and Their Implications for the Presence of Water Ice, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2320

Science Planning for the Solar Probe Plus NASA Mission

AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2015
Kusterer, M.~B. and Fox, N.~J. and Turner, F.~S. and Vand egriff, J.~D., (2015), Science Planning for the Solar Probe Plus NASA Mission, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2015, SH31C-2430

Mini-RF and Arecibo Observatory Bistatic Observations of the Moon

AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2015
Patterson, G. and Bussey, B. and Stickle, A.~M. and Turner, F.~S. and Jensen, J.~R. and Nolan, M.~C. and Yocky, D.~A. and Wahl, D.~E., (2015), Mini-RF and Arecibo Observatory Bistatic Observations of the Moon, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2015, P53G-06

Mini-RF on LRO and Arecibo Observatory Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon

Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group, 2015
Patterson, G.~W. and Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Stickle, A.~M. and Turner, F.~S. and Jensen, J.~R. and Nolan, M. and Yocky, D.~A. and Wahl, D.~E. and Mini-RF Team, (2015), Mini-RF on LRO and Arecibo Observatory Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon, Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group, 1863, 2060

Mini-RF on LRO and Arecibo Observatory Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2015
Patterson, G.~W. and Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Stickle, A.~M. and Turner, F.~S. and Jensen, J.~R. and Nolan, M. and Yocky, D.~A. and Wahl, D.~E. and Mini-RF Team, (2015), Mini-RF on LRO and Arecibo Observatory Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2888

The Miniature Radio Frequency instrument's (Mini-RF) global observations of Earth's Moon

ıcarus, 2014
Cahill, Joshua T.~S. and Thomson, B.~J. and Patterson, G. Wesley and Bussey, D. Benjamin J. and Neish, Catherine D. and Lopez, Norberto R. and Turner, F. Scott and Aldridge, T. and McAdam, M. and Meyer, H.~M. and Raney, R.~K. and Carter, L.~M. and Spudis, P.~D. and Hiesinger, H. and Pasckert, J.~H., (2014), The Miniature Radio Frequency instrument's (Mini-RF) global observations of Earth's Moon, icarus, 243, 173-190

Progress Towards a Global Digital Elevation Model for Mercury

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2014
Becker, K.~J. and Becker, T.~L. and Edmundson, K.~L. and Gaskell, R.~W. and McNutt, R.~L. and Murchie, S.~L. and Neumann, G.~A. and Perry, M.~E. and Prockter, L.~M. and Robinson, M.~S. and Solomon, S.~C. and Stephens, G.~K. and Turner, F.~S. and Weller, L.~A., (2014), Progress Towards a Global Digital Elevation Model for Mercury, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2243

Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory and Mini-RF on LRO

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2014
Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Patterson, G.~W. and Turner, F.~S. and Schulze, R. and Wahl, D.~E. and Erteza, I. and Nolan, M. and Jensen, J.~R. and Yocky, D.~A. and Stickle, A.~M. and Carter, L. and Jakowatz, C.~V. and Spudis, P.~D. and Mini-RF Team, (2014), Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory and Mini-RF on LRO, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2704

SciBox, an end-to-end automated science planning and commanding system

Acta Astronautica, 2014
Choo, Teck H. and Murchie, Scott L. and Bedini, Peter D. and Steele, R. Josh and Skura, Joseph P. and Nguyen, Lillian and Nair, Hari and Lucks, Michael and Berman, Alice F. and McGovern, James A. and Turner, F. Scott, (2014), SciBox, an end-to-end automated science planning and commanding system, Acta Astronautica, 93, 490-496

Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory & Mini-RF on LRO

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2013
Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Patterson, G.~W. and Schulze, R. and Wahl, D.~E. and Nolan, M. and Jensen, J.~R. and Turner, F.~S. and Yocky, D.~A. and Jakowatz, C.~V. and Erteza, I. and Carter, L. and Neish, C.~D. and Mini-RF Team, (2013), Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory & Mini-RF on LRO, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2816

Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory and Mini-RF on LRO

Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group, 2012
Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Schulze, R. and Wahl, D.~E. and Patterson, G.~W. and Nolan, M. and Jensen, J.~R. and Turner, F.~S. and Yocky, D.~A. and Cahill, J.~T.~S. and Jakowatz, C.~V. and Raney, R.~K. and Mini-RF Team, (2012), Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory and Mini-RF on LRO, Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group, 1685, 3010

Exploring for Ice with Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory and the Mini-RF Instrument on LRO

Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, 2012
Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Schulze, R. and Wahl, D.~E. and Nolan, M. and Jensen, R. and Patterson, G.~W. and Turner, F.~S. and Yocky, D.~A. and Cahill, J.~T.~S. and Raney, R.~K. and Neish, C. and Spudis, P.~D. and Jakowatz, C.~V. and Mini-RF Team, (2012), Exploring for Ice with Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory and the Mini-RF Instrument on LRO, Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, 75, 5329

Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory and the Mini-RF Instrument on LRO

European Planetary Science Congress 2012, 2012
Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Schulze, R. and Jakowatz, C.~V. and Nolan, M. and Jensen, R. and Patterson, G.~W. and Turner, F.~S. and Wahl, D.~E. and Yocky, D.~A. and Cahill, J.~T.~S. and Neish, C. and Raney, R.~K. and Spudis, P.~D., (2012), Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory and the Mini-RF Instrument on LRO, European Planetary Science Congress 2012, EPSC2012-737

Global Mini-RF S-Band CPR and M-Chi Decomposition Observations of the Moon

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2012
Cahill, J.~T.~S. and Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Patterson, G.~W. and Turner, F.~S. and Lopez, N.~R. and Raney, R.~K. and Neish, C.~D. and Mini-Rf Science Team, (2012), Global Mini-RF S-Band CPR and M-Chi Decomposition Observations of the Moon, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2590

Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory and the Mini-RF Instrument on LRO

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2012
Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Schulze, R. and Jakowatz, C.~V. and Nolan, M. and Jensen, R. and Turner, F.~S. and Wahl, D.~E. and Yocky, D.~A. and Cahill, J.~T.~S. and Raney, R.~K. and Patterson, G.~W. and Mini-Rf Team, (2012), Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using the Arecibo Observatory and the Mini-RF Instrument on LRO, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2586

Bistatic Radar Observations Of The Moon Using The Arecibo Observatory & Mini-RF On LRO

AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2012
Bussey, B. and Schulze, R. and Wahl, D. and Patterson, G.~W. and Nolan, M.~C. and Jensen, R. and Turner, S. and Yocky, D. and Cahill, J.~T. and Jakowatz, J. and Carter, L.~M. and Neish, C. and Spudis, P. and Raney, R.~K., (2012), Bistatic Radar Observations Of The Moon Using The Arecibo Observatory & Mini-RF On LRO, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2012, P43B-1919

Radius and limb topography of Mercury obtained from images acquired during the MESSENGER flybys

\planss, 2011
Oberst, J"urgen and Elgner, Stephan and Turner, F. Scott and Perry, Mark E. and Gaskell, Robert W. and Zuber, Maria T. and Robinson, Mark S. and Solomon, Sean C., (2011), Radius and limb topography of Mercury obtained from images acquired during the MESSENGER flybys, planss, 59, 15, 1918-1924

Asymmetries in Saturn's radiation belts

Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 2010
Paranicas, C. and Mitchell, D.~G. and Krimigis, S.~M. and Carbary, J.~F. and Brandt, P.~C. and Turner, F.~S. and Roussos, E. and Krupp, N. and Kivelson, M.~G. and Khurana, K.~K. and Cooper, J.~F. and Armstrong, T.~P. and Burton, M., (2010), Asymmetries in Saturn's radiation belts, Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 115, A7, A07216

Digital Terrain Models of Mercury from MESSENGER Stereo Images

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2010
Preusker, F. and Oberst, J. and Phillips, J. and Watters, T.~R. and Head, J.~W. and Zuber, M.~T. and Turner, F.~S. and Solomon, S.~C., (2010), Digital Terrain Models of Mercury from MESSENGER Stereo Images, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 1789

Mini-RF Calibration, a Unique Approach to On-Orbit Synthetic Aperture Radar System Calibration

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2010
McKerracher, P.~L. and Jensen, J.~R. and Sequeira, H.~B. and Raney, R.~K. and Schulze, R.~C. and Bussey, D.~B.~J. and Butler, B.~J. and Neish, C.~D. and Palsetia, M. and Patterson, G.~W. and Spudis, P.~D. and Thomson, B.~J. and Turner, F.~S., (2010), Mini-RF Calibration, a Unique Approach to On-Orbit Synthetic Aperture Radar System Calibration, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2352

Topographic Models of Mercury from MESSENGER Stereo Images

38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 2010
Preusker, Frank and Oberst, Juergen and Phillips, Roger J. and Watters, Thomas and Head, James W. and Zuber, Maria T. and Turner, Scott and Solomon, Sean C., (2010), Topographic Models of Mercury from MESSENGER Stereo Images, 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 38, 9

In-flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System

Instruments and Methods for Astrobiology and Planetary Missions XII, 2009
Hawkins, S. Edward, III and Murchie, Scott L. and Becker, Kris J. and Selby, Christina M. and Turner, F. Scott and Noble, Matthew W. and Chabot, Nancy L. and Choo, Teck H. and Darlington, Edward H. and Denevi, Brett W. and Domingue, Deborah L. and Ernst, Carolyn M. and Holsclaw, Gregory M. and Laslo, Nori R. and McClintock, William E. and Prockter, Louise M. and Robinson, Mark S. and Solomon, Sean C. and Sterner, Raymond E., II, (2009), In-flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System, Instruments and Methods for Astrobiology and Planetary Missions XII, 7441, 74410Z

Near Global Mosaic of Mercury

AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2009
Becker, K.~J. and Robinson, M.~S. and Becker, T.~L. and Weller, L.~A. and Turner, S. and Nguyen, L. and Selby, C. and Denevi, B.~W. and Murchie, S.~L. and McNutt, R.~L. and Solomon, S.~C., (2009), Near Global Mosaic of Mercury, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2009, P21A-1189

Automated Commanding for a Cassini Science Instrument

SpaceOps 2008 Conference, 2008
, (2008), Automated Commanding for a Cassini Science Instrument, SpaceOps 2008 Conference

Energetic electrons injected into Saturn's neutral gas cloud

\grl, 2007
Paranicas, C. and Mitchell, D.~G. and Roelof, E.~C. and Mauk, B.~H. and Krimigis, S.~M. and Brandt, P.~C. and Kusterer, M. and Turner, F.~S. and Vandegriff, J. and Krupp, N., (2007), Energetic electrons injected into Saturn's neutral gas cloud, grl, 34, 2, L02109

Source mechanism for energetic electrons at Saturn

AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2006
Paranicas, C. and Mitchell, D.~G. and Roelof, E.~C. and Mauk, B.~H. and Krupp, N. and Krimigis, S.~M. and Brand t, P.~C. and Turner, F.~S., (2006), Source mechanism for energetic electrons at Saturn, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2006, SM21E-08

Evidence of Enceladus and Tethys microsignatures

\grl, 2005
Paranicas, C. and Mitchell, D.~G. and Livi, S. and Krimigis, S.~M. and Roussos, E. and Krupp, N. and Woch, J. and Lagg, A. and Saur, J. and Turner, F.~S., (2005), Evidence of Enceladus and Tethys microsignatures, grl, 32, 20, L20101

Dynamics of Saturn's Magnetosphere from MIMI During Cassini's Orbital Insertion

Science, 2005
Krimigis, S.~M. and Mitchell, D.~G. and Hamilton, D.~C. and Krupp, N. and Livi, S. and Roelof, E.~C. and Dandouras, J. and Armstrong, T.~P. and Mauk, B.~H. and Paranicas, C. and Brand t, P.~C. and Bolton, S. and Cheng, A.~F. and Choo, T. and Gloeckler, G. and Hayes, J. and Hsieh, K.~C. and Ip, W. -H. and Jaskulek, S. and Keath, E.~P. and Kirsch, E. and Kusterer, M. and Lagg, A. and Lanzerotti, L.~J. and LaVallee, D. and Manweiler, J. and McEntire, R.~W. and Rasmuss, W. and Saur, J. and Turner, F.~S. and Williams, D.~J. and Woch, J., (2005), Dynamics of Saturn's Magnetosphere from MIMI During Cassini's Orbital Insertion, Science, 307, 5713, 1270-1273

Imaging of Saturn's magnetosphere and energetic particles obsered during Cassini's orbit insertion at Saturn

AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #36, 2004
Krimigis, S.~M. and Mitchell, D.~G. and Hamilton, D.~C. and Krupp, N. and Livi, S. and Roelof, E.~C. and Dandouras, J. and Armstrong, T.~P. and Mauk, B.~H. and Paranicas, C. and Brand t, P. and Bolton, S. and Cheng, A.~F. and Choo, T. and Gloeckler, G. and Hayes, J. and Hsieh, K.~C. and Ip, W. -H. and Jaskulek, S. and Keath, E.~P. and Kirsch, E. and Kusterer, M. and Lagg, A. and Lanzerotti, L.~J. and LaVallee, D. and Manweiler, J. and McEntire, R.~W. and Rasmuss, W. and Saur, J. and Turner, F.~S. and Williams, D.~J., (2004), Imaging of Saturn's magnetosphere and energetic particles obsered during Cassini's orbit insertion at Saturn, AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #36, 02.02

Examining Mars with SPICE

The Fifth International Conference on Mars, 1999
Acton, C.~H. and Bachman, N.~J. and Bytof, J.~A. and Semenov, B.~V. and Taber, W. and Turner, F.~S. and Wright, E.~D., (1999), Examining Mars with SPICE, The Fifth International Conference on Mars, 6042