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Kan Liou

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Space Physicist
240-228-3279
  • Ph.D., Physics
    1994, University of New Hampshire
  • M.S., Atmospheric Physics
    1985, National Central University, ROC

My research includes study of space weather from the ionosphere/thermosphere to interplanetary space. It includes studies of auroral morphology, substorms, ionospheric/thermospheric storms, and global ULF waves with optical image, particle, field, and GPS-TEC data; inner proton radiation belt data analysis using NOAA satellite data; and solar wind and coronal mass ejections using global numerical magnetohydrodynamics simulation.

Scholarly Publications

Response of northern winter polar cap to auroral substorms

Geophysical Research Letters, 2016
Kan Liou, Thomas Sotirelis, (2016), Response of northern winter polar cap to auroral substorms, Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 4098-4105

A Possible Cause of the Diminished SolarWind During the Solar Cycle 23-24 Minimum

Solar Physics, 2016
Kan Liou, Chin-Chun Wu, (2016), A Possible Cause of the Diminished SolarWind During the Solar Cycle 23-24 Minimum, Solar Physics, 291, 3777-3792

Substorm probabilities are best predicted from solar wind speed

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2016
P. T. Newell, K. Liou, J. W. Gjerloev, T. Sotirelis, S. Wing, E. J. Mitchell, (2016), Substorm probabilities are best predicted from solar wind speed, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 146, 28-37

The first super geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24: "The St. Patrick's day event (17 March 2015)"

Earth Planets and Space, 2016
Chin-Chun Wu, Kan Liou, Ronald P. Lepping, Lynn Hutting, Simon Plunkett, Russ A. Howard, Dennis Socker, (2016), The first super geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24: "The St. Patrick's day event (17 March 2015)", Earth Planets and Space, 68

Global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the 15 March 2013 coronal mass ejection eventInterpretation of the 30-80MeV proton flux

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2016
Chin-Chun Wu, Kan Liou, Angelos Vourlidas, Simon Plunkett, Murray Dryer, S. T. Wu, Richard A. Mewaldt, (2016), Global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the 15 March 2013 coronal mass ejection eventInterpretation of the 30-80MeV proton flux, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 121, 56-76

Numerical simulation of multiple CME-driven shocks in the month of 2011 September

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2016
Chin-Chun Wu, Kan Liou, Angelos Vourlidas, Simon Plunkett, Murray Dryer, S. T. Wu, Dennis Socker, Brian E. Wood, Lynn Hutting, Russell A. Howard, (2016), Numerical simulation of multiple CME-driven shocks in the month of 2011 September, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 121, 1839-1856

Study of a global auroral Pc5 pulsation event with concurrent ULF waves

Geophysical Research Letters, 2014
Kan Liou, David G. Sibeck, (2014), Study of a global auroral Pc5 pulsation event with concurrent ULF waves, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 6547-6555

Global simulation of extremely fast coronal mass ejection on 23 July 2012

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2014
Kan Liou, Chin-Chun Wu, Murray Dryer, Shi-Tsan Wu, Nathan Rich, Simon Plunkett, Lynn Simpson, Craig D. Fry, Kevin Schenk, (2014), Global simulation of extremely fast coronal mass ejection on 23 July 2012, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 121, 32-41

OVATION Prime-2013: Extension of auroral precipitation model to higher disturbance levels

Space Weather-the International Journal of Research and Applications, 2014
P. T. Newell, K. Liou, Y. Zhang, T. Sotirelis, L. J. Paxton, E. J. Mitchell, (2014), OVATION Prime-2013: Extension of auroral precipitation model to higher disturbance levels, Space Weather-the International Journal of Research and Applications, 12, 368-379

Observations of field line resonance with global auroral images

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2013
K. Liou, K. Takahashi, (2013), Observations of field line resonance with global auroral images, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 105, 152-159

Assessment of the auroral electrojet index performance under various geomagnetic conditions

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2013
K. Liou, K. Takahashi, B. J. Anderson, M. Nose, T. Iyemori, (2013), Assessment of the auroral electrojet index performance under various geomagnetic conditions, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 92, 31-36

Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Pressure Pulses Under Northward IMF Conditions

Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 2013
Kan Liou, Desheng Han, Huigen Yang, (2013), Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Pressure Pulses Under Northward IMF Conditions, Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 24, 183-195

Statistical comparison of isolated and non-isolated auroral substorms

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2013
Kan Liou, Patrick T. Newell, Yong-Liang Zhang, Larry J. Paxton, (2013), Statistical comparison of isolated and non-isolated auroral substorms, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 118, 2466-2477

Magnetohydrodynamic Fast Shocks and Their Relation to Solar Energetic Particle Event Intensities

Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 2013
Kan Liou, Chin-Chun Wu, Murray Dryer, Shi-Tsan Wu, Daniel B. Berdichevsky, Simon Plunkett, Richard A. Mewaldt, Glenn M. Mason, (2013), Magnetohydrodynamic Fast Shocks and Their Relation to Solar Energetic Particle Event Intensities, Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 24, 165-173

OVATION-SM: A model of auroral precipitation based on SuperMAG generalized auroral electrojet and substorm onset times

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2013
E. J. Mitchell, P. T. Newell, J. W. Gjerloev, K. Liou, (2013), OVATION-SM: A model of auroral precipitation based on SuperMAG generalized auroral electrojet and substorm onset times, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 118, 3747-3759

Investigation of Solar/Heliospheric Anomalies Associated with the Solar Minimum of 2007-2008

Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 2013
Chin-Chun Wu, Kan Liou, Simon Plunkett, Craig Daniel Fry, Shi-Tsan Wu, (2013), Investigation of Solar/Heliospheric Anomalies Associated with the Solar Minimum of 2007-2008, Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 24, 243-252

A statistical study of energy release and transport midway between the magnetic reconnection and initial dipolarization regions in the near-Earth magnetotail associated with substorm expansion onsets

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2012
Y. Miyashita, S. Machida, M. Nose, K. Liou, Y. Saito, W. R. Paterson, (2012), A statistical study of energy release and transport midway between the magnetic reconnection and initial dipolarization regions in the near-Earth magnetotail associated with substorm expansion onsets, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 117

TIMED/GUVI observation of solar illumination effect on auroral energy deposition

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2011
K. Liou, Y. -L. Zhang, P. T. Newell, L. J. Paxton, J. F. Carbary, (2011), TIMED/GUVI observation of solar illumination effect on auroral energy deposition, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 116

Successive substorm expansions during a period of prolonged northward interplanetary magnetic field

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2011
Y. Miyashita, Y. Kamide, K. Liou, C. -C. Wu, A. Ieda, N. Nishitani, S. Machida, Y. Saito, T. Mukai, (2011), Successive substorm expansions during a period of prolonged northward interplanetary magnetic field, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 116

Solar wind driving and substorm triggering

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2011
Patrick T. Newell, Kan Liou, (2011), Solar wind driving and substorm triggering, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 116

AKR modulation and global Pi2 oscillation

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2011
Teiji Uozumi, K. Yumoto, T. Tokunaga, S. I. Solovyev, B. M. Shevtsov, R. Marshall, K. Liou, S. Ohtani, S. Abe, A. Ikeda, K. Kitamura, A. Yoshikawa, H. Kawano, M. Itonaga, (2011), AKR modulation and global Pi2 oscillation, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 116

Global three-dimensional simulation of the interplanetary evolution of the observed geoeffective coronal mass ejection during the epoch 1-4 August 2010

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2011
Chin-Chun Wu, Murray Dryer, S. T. Wu, Brian E. Wood, Craig D. Fry, Kan Liou, Simon Plunkett, (2011), Global three-dimensional simulation of the interplanetary evolution of the observed geoeffective coronal mass ejection during the epoch 1-4 August 2010, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 116

Relatively low-latitude wave aurora and substorms

Geophysical Research Letters, 2010
Anna R. Lee, Patrick T. Newell, Jesper Gjerloev, Kan Liou, (2010), Relatively low-latitude wave aurora and substorms, Geophysical Research Letters, 37

On the azimuthal location of auroral breakup: Hemispheric asymmetry

Geophysical Research Letters, 2010
K. Liou, P. T. Newell, (2010), On the azimuthal location of auroral breakup: Hemispheric asymmetry, Geophysical Research Letters, 37

Polar Ultraviolet Imager observation of auroral breakup

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2010
Kan Liou, (2010), Polar Ultraviolet Imager observation of auroral breakup, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Plasma sheet changes caused by sudden enhancements of the solar wind pressure

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2010
Y. Miyashita, K. Keika, K. Liou, S. Machida, Y. Kamide, Y. Miyoshi, Y. Matsumoto, I. Shinohara, Y. Saito, T. Mukai, (2010), Plasma sheet changes caused by sudden enhancements of the solar wind pressure, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Pressure changes associated with substorm depolarization in the near-Earth plasma sheet

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2010
Y. Miyashita, S. Machida, A. Ieda, D. Nagata, Y. Kamide, M. Nose, K. Liou, T. Mukai, S. P. Christon, C. T. Russell, I. Shinohara, Y. Saito, (2010), Pressure changes associated with substorm depolarization in the near-Earth plasma sheet, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Two-step evolution of auroral acceleration at substorm onset

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2010
A. Morioka, Y. Miyoshi, Y. Miyashita, Y. Kasaba, H. Misawa, F. Tsuchiya, R. Kataoka, A. Kadokura, T. Mukai, K. Yumoto, D. J. Menietti, G. Parks, K. Liou, F. Honary, E. Donovan, (2010), Two-step evolution of auroral acceleration at substorm onset, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Predictive ability of four auroral precipitation models as evaluated using Polar UVI global images

Space Weather-the International Journal of Research and Applications, 2010
P. T. Newell, T. Sotirelis, K. Liou, A. R. Lee, S. Wing, J. Green, R. Redmon, (2010), Predictive ability of four auroral precipitation models as evaluated using Polar UVI global images, Space Weather-the International Journal of Research and Applications, 8

Substorm cycle dependence of various types of aurora

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2010
Patrick T. Newell, Anna R. Lee, Kan Liou, Shin-I. Ohtani, Thomas Sotirelis, Simon Wing, (2010), Substorm cycle dependence of various types of aurora, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Multisatellite low-altitude observations of a magnetopause merging burst

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2010
Patrick T. Newell, Anna R. Lee, Kan Liou, Shin Ohtani, Simon Wing, Marc Hairston, (2010), Multisatellite low-altitude observations of a magnetopause merging burst, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Stepwise feature of aurora during substorm expansion compared with the near-Earth tail dipolarization: Possible types of substorm dynamics

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2010
M. H. Saito, Y. Miyashita, M. Fujimoto, K. Liou, Y. Saito, J. B. Sigwarth, (2010), Stepwise feature of aurora during substorm expansion compared with the near-Earth tail dipolarization: Possible types of substorm dynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Comment on "Wavelet-based ULF wave diagnosis of substorm expansion phase onset" by K. Murphy et al.

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2009
K. Liou, Y. -L. Zhang, (2009), Comment on "Wavelet-based ULF wave diagnosis of substorm expansion phase onset" by K. Murphy et al., Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 114

Statistical visualization of the Earth's magnetotail based on Geotail data and the implied substorm model

Annales Geophysicae, 2009
S. Machida, Y. Miyashita, A. Ieda, M. Nose, D. Nagata, K. Liou, T. Obara, A. Nishida, Y. Saito, T. Mukai, (2009), Statistical visualization of the Earth's magnetotail based on Geotail data and the implied substorm model, Annales Geophysicae, 27, 1035-1046

A state-of-the-art picture of substorm-associated evolution of the near-Earth magnetotail obtained from superposed epoch analysis

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2009
Y. Miyashita, S. Machida, Y. Kamide, D. Nagata, K. Liou, M. Fujimoto, A. Ieda, M. H. Saito, C. T. Russell, S. P. Christon, M. Nose, H. U. Frey, I. Shinohara, T. Mukai, Y. Saito, H. Hayakawa, (2009), A state-of-the-art picture of substorm-associated evolution of the near-Earth magnetotail obtained from superposed epoch analysis, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 114

Polar cap particle precipitation and aurora: Review and commentary

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2009
Patrick T. Newell, Kan Liou, Gordon R. Wilson, (2009), Polar cap particle precipitation and aurora: Review and commentary, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 71, 199-215

Propagation characteristics of Pi 2 pulsations observed at high- and low-latitude MAGDAS/CPMN stations: A statistical study

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2009
Teiji Uozumi, S. Abe, K. Kitamura, T. Tokunaga, A. Yoshikawa, H. Kawano, R. Marshall, R. J. Morris, B. M. Shevtsov, S. I. Solovyev, D. J. McNamara, K. Liou, S. Ohtani, M. Itonaga, K. Yumoto, (2009), Propagation characteristics of Pi 2 pulsations observed at high- and low-latitude MAGDAS/CPMN stations: A statistical study, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 114

Longitudinal association between magnetotail reconnection and auroral breakup based on Geotail and Polar observations

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2008
A. Ieda, D. H. Fairfield, J. A. Slavin, K. Liou, C. -I. Meng, S. Machida, Y. Miyashita, T. Mukai, Y. Saito, M. Nose, J. -H. Shue, G. K. Parks, M. O. Fillingim, (2008), Longitudinal association between magnetotail reconnection and auroral breakup based on Geotail and Polar observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 113

Oscillations of the equatorward boundary of the ion auroral oval - radar observations

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2008
P. T. Jayachandran, N. Sato, Y. Ebihara, A. S. Yukimatu, A. Kadokura, J. W. MacDougall, E. F. Donovan, K. Liou, (2008), Oscillations of the equatorward boundary of the ion auroral oval - radar observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 113

Polar Ultraviolet Imager observations of solar wind-driven ULF auroral pulsations

Geophysical Research Letters, 2008
K. Liou, K. Takahashi, P. T. Newell, K. Yumoto, (2008), Polar Ultraviolet Imager observations of solar wind-driven ULF auroral pulsations, Geophysical Research Letters, 35

Pairs of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions: Combining a merging term with a viscous term works best

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2008
P. T. Newell, T. Sotirelis, K. Liou, F. J. Rich, (2008), Pairs of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions: Combining a merging term with a viscous term works best, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 113

Ballooning mode waves prior to substorm-associated dipolarizations: Geotail observations

Geophysical Research Letters, 2008
M. H. Saito, Y. Miyashita, M. Fujimoto, I. Shinohara, Y. Saito, K. Liou, T. Mukai, (2008), Ballooning mode waves prior to substorm-associated dipolarizations: Geotail observations, Geophysical Research Letters, 35

Variation of ionospheric total electron content in Taiwan region of the equatorial anomaly from 1994 to 2003

Advances in Space Research, 2008
Chin-Chun Wu, K. Liou, Shao-Ju Shan, C. -L. Tseng, (2008), Variation of ionospheric total electron content in Taiwan region of the equatorial anomaly from 1994 to 2003, Advances in Space Research, 41, 611-616

Large, abrupt pressure decreases as a substorm onset trigger

Geophysical Research Letters, 2007
Kan Liou, (2007), Large, abrupt pressure decreases as a substorm onset trigger, Geophysical Research Letters, 34

"Compression aurora'': Particle precipitation driven by long-duration high solar wind ram pressure

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2007
Kan Liou, Patrick T. Newell, Jih-Hong Shue, Ching-I Meng, Yukinaga Miyashita, Hirotsugu Kojima, Hiroshi Matsumoto, (2007), "Compression aurora'': Particle precipitation driven by long-duration high solar wind ram pressure, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 112

A nearly universal solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function inferred from 10 magnetospheric state variables

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2007
P. T. Newell, T. Sotirelis, K. Liou, C. -I. Meng, F. J. Rich, (2007), A nearly universal solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function inferred from 10 magnetospheric state variables, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 112

Three-dimensional global simulation of multiple ICMEs' interaction and propagation from the Sun to the heliosphere following the 25-28 October 2003 solar events

Advances in Space Research, 2007
C. C. Wu, C. D. Fry, M. Dryer, S. T. Wu, B. Thompson, Kan Liou, X. S. Feng, (2007), Three-dimensional global simulation of multiple ICMEs' interaction and propagation from the Sun to the heliosphere following the 25-28 October 2003 solar events, Advances in Space Research, 40, 1827-1834

Three-dimensional global simulation of interplanetary coronal mass ejection propagation from the Sun to the heliosphere: Solar event of 12 May 1997

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2007
Chin-Chun Wu, C. D. Fry, S. T. Wu, M. Dryer, Kan Liou, (2007), Three-dimensional global simulation of interplanetary coronal mass ejection propagation from the Sun to the heliosphere: Solar event of 12 May 1997, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 112

Global auroral response to negative pressure impulses

Geophysical Research Letters, 2006
K. Liou, P. T. Newell, T. Sotirelis, C. -I. Meng, (2006), Global auroral response to negative pressure impulses, Geophysical Research Letters, 33

On the interplanetary magnetic field B-y control of substorm bulge expansion

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2006
Kan Liou, Ching-I Meng, Chin-Chun Wu, (2006), On the interplanetary magnetic field B-y control of substorm bulge expansion, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 111

A case study of relationship between substorm expansion and global plasma convection

Geophysical Research Letters, 2006
K Liou, JM Ruohoniemi, (2006), A case study of relationship between substorm expansion and global plasma convection, Geophysical Research Letters, 33

Magnetotail variations associated with substorm expansion onsets for storm time and nonstorm time

Geophysical Research Letters, 2006
Y. Miyashita, Y. Kamide, Y. Miyoshi, S. Machida, K. Liou, T. Mukai, Y. Saito, C. -I. Meng, G. K. Parks, (2006), Magnetotail variations associated with substorm expansion onsets for storm time and nonstorm time, Geophysical Research Letters, 33

Cusp latitude and the optimal solar wind coupling function

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2006
P. T. Newell, T. Sotirelis, K. Liou, C. -I. Meng, F. J. Rich, (2006), Cusp latitude and the optimal solar wind coupling function, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 111

Longitudinal dependence of characteristics of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations observed at Kakioka and Hermanus

Earth Planets and Space, 2006
M Nose, K Liou, PR Sutcliffe, (2006), Longitudinal dependence of characteristics of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations observed at Kakioka and Hermanus, Earth Planets and Space, 58, 775-783

Precipitation and total power consumption in the ionosphere: Global MHD simulation results compared with Polar and SNOE observations

Annales Geophysicae, 2006
M. Palmroth, P. Janhunen, G. Germany, D. Lummerzheim, K. Liou, D. N. Baker, C. Barth, A. T. Weatherwax, J. Watermann, (2006), Precipitation and total power consumption in the ionosphere: Global MHD simulation results compared with Polar and SNOE observations, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 861-872

Meso-scale aurora within the expansion phase bulge

Annales Geophysicae, 2006
N. Partamies, K. Kauristie, E. Donovan, E. Spanswick, K. Liou, (2006), Meso-scale aurora within the expansion phase bulge, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 2209-2218

Ionospheric characteristics of the dusk-side branch of the two-cell aurora

Annales Geophysicae, 2006
JH Shue, PT Newell, K Liou, CI Meng, MR Hairston, FJ Rich, (2006), Ionospheric characteristics of the dusk-side branch of the two-cell aurora, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 203-214

Global and local equatorward expansion of the ion auroral oval before substorm onsets

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2005
PT Jayachandran, EF Donovan, JW MacDougall, DR Moorcroft, K Liou, PT Newell, JP St-Maurice, (2005), Global and local equatorward expansion of the ion auroral oval before substorm onsets, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 110

Observations of ionospheric plasma flows within theta auroras

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2005
K Liou, JM Ruohoniemi, PT Newell, R Greenwald, CI Meng, MR Hairston, (2005), Observations of ionospheric plasma flows within theta auroras, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 110

Plasmoids observed in the near-Earth magnetotail at X similar to-7 R-E

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2005
Y Miyashita, A Ieda, Y Kamide, S Machida, T Mukai, Y Saito, K Liou, CI Meng, GK Parks, RW McEntire, N Nishitani, M Lester, GJ Sofko, JP Villain, (2005), Plasmoids observed in the near-Earth magnetotail at X similar to-7 R-E, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 110

Source of Pc4 pulsations observed on the nightside

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2005
K Takahashi, K Liou, K Yumoto, K Kitamura, M Nose, F Honary, (2005), Source of Pc4 pulsations observed on the nightside, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 110

On the relationship between shock-induced polar magnetic bays and solar wind parameters

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2004
K Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, CC Wu, RP Lepping, (2004), On the relationship between shock-induced polar magnetic bays and solar wind parameters, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 109

Substorm timings and timescales: A new aspect

Space Science Reviews, 2004
CI Meng, K Liou, (2004), Substorm timings and timescales: A new aspect, Space Science Reviews, 113, 41-75

Difference in magnetotail variations between intense and weak substorms

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2004
Y Miyashita, Y Kamide, S Machida, K Liou, T Mukai, Y Saito, A Ieda, CI Meng, GK Parks, (2004), Difference in magnetotail variations between intense and weak substorms, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 109

Auroral streamers: characteristics of associated precipitation, convection and field-aligned currents

Annales Geophysicae, 2004
VA Sergeev, K Liou, PT Newell, SI Ohtani, MR Hairston, F Rich, (2004), Auroral streamers: characteristics of associated precipitation, convection and field-aligned currents, Annales Geophysicae, 22, 537-548

Longitudinal structure of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations and its dependence on aurora

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2004
K Takahashi, K Liou, (2004), Longitudinal structure of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations and its dependence on aurora, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 109

Propagation characteristics of Pi 2 magnetic pulsations observed at ground high latitudes

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2004
T Uozumi, K Yumoto, H Kawano, A Yoshikawa, S Ohtani, JV Olson, SI Akasofu, SI Solovyev, EF Vershinin, K Liou, CI Meng, (2004), Propagation characteristics of Pi 2 magnetic pulsations observed at ground high latitudes, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 109

Annual TEC variation in the equatorial anomaly region during the solar minimum: September 1996-August 1997

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2004
CC Wu, CD Fry, JY Liu, K Liou, CL Tseng, (2004), Annual TEC variation in the equatorial anomaly region during the solar minimum: September 1996-August 1997, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 66, 199-207

Identification of substorms within storms

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2004
CC Wu, K Liou, RP Lepping, CI Meng, (2004), Identification of substorms within storms, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 66, 125-132

Quiet time magnetotail plasma flow: Coordinated Polar ultraviolet images and Geotail observations

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2003
A Ieda, JH Shue, K Liou, SI Ohtani, CI Meng, DH Fairfield, T Mukai, Y Saito, S Machida, T Nagai, GK Parks, (2003), Quiet time magnetotail plasma flow: Coordinated Polar ultraviolet images and Geotail observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Substorm associated changes in the high-latitude ionospheric convection

Geophysical Research Letters, 2003
PT Jayachandran, JW MacDougall, EF Donovan, JM Ruohoniemi, K Liou, DR Moorcroft, JP St-Maurice, (2003), Substorm associated changes in the high-latitude ionospheric convection, Geophysical Research Letters, 30

Bursty bulk flow intrusion to the inner plasma sheet as inferred from auroral observations

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2003
K Kauristie, VA Sergeev, O Amm, MV Kubyshkina, J Jussila, E Donovan, K Liou, (2003), Bursty bulk flow intrusion to the inner plasma sheet as inferred from auroral observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Correlation of auroral power with the polar cap index

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2003
K Liou, JF Carbary, PT Newell, CI Meng, O Rasmussen, (2003), Correlation of auroral power with the polar cap index, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Investigation of external triggering of substorms with Polar ultraviolet imager observations

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2003
K Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, CC Wu, RP Lepping, (2003), Investigation of external triggering of substorms with Polar ultraviolet imager observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

A new technique for short-term forecast of auroral activity

Geophysical Research Letters, 2003
ATY Lui, WW Lai, K Liou, CI Meng, (2003), A new technique for short-term forecast of auroral activity, Geophysical Research Letters, 30

Evolution of the magnetotail associated with substorm auroral breakups

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2003
Y Miyashita, S Machida, K Liou, T Mukai, Y Saito, H Hayakawa, CI Meng, GK Parks, (2003), Evolution of the magnetotail associated with substorm auroral breakups, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Relationship between magnetotail variations and auroral activities during substorms

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2003
Y Miyashita, S Machida, K Liou, T Mukai, Y Saito, CI Meng, GK Parks, (2003), Relationship between magnetotail variations and auroral activities during substorms, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Quantitative relationships between plasma sheet fast flows and nightside auroral power

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2003
JH Shue, S Ohtani, PT Newell, K Liou, CI Meng, A Ieda, T Mukai, (2003), Quantitative relationships between plasma sheet fast flows and nightside auroral power, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Plasma sheet fast flows and auroral dynamics during substorm: a case study

Annales Geophysicae, 2002
NL Borodkova, AG Yahnin, K Liou, JA Sauvaud, AO Fedorov, VN Lutsenko, MN Nozdrachev, AA Lyubchich, (2002), Plasma sheet fast flows and auroral dynamics during substorm: a case study, Annales Geophysicae, 20, 341-347

Substorm onset location and the equatorward boundary of the proton auroral oval

Geophysical Research Letters, 2002
PT Jayachandran, JW MacDougall, DR Moorcroft, JP St-Maurice, K Liou, PT Newell, (2002), Substorm onset location and the equatorward boundary of the proton auroral oval, Geophysical Research Letters, 29

Magnetic dipolarization with substorm expansion onset

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2002
K Liou, CI Meng, ATY Lui, PT Newell, S Wing, (2002), Magnetic dipolarization with substorm expansion onset, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 107

Midday sub-auroral patches (MSPs) associated with interplanetary shocks

Geophysical Research Letters, 2002
K Liou, CC Wu, RP Lepping, PT Newell, CI Meng, (2002), Midday sub-auroral patches (MSPs) associated with interplanetary shocks, Geophysical Research Letters, 29

Global auroral power as an index for geospace disturbances

Geophysical Research Letters, 2002
CI Meng, K Liou, (2002), Global auroral power as an index for geospace disturbances, Geophysical Research Letters, 29

The distribution of auroral power increases and decreases

Geophysical Research Letters, 2002
PT Newell, K Liou, JP Skura, CI Meng, (2002), The distribution of auroral power increases and decreases, Geophysical Research Letters, 29

OVATION: Oval variation, assessment, tracking, intensity, and online nowcasting

Annales Geophysicae, 2002
PT Newell, T Sotirelis, JM Ruohoniemi, JF Carbary, K Liou, JP Skura, CI Meng, C Deehr, D Wilkinson, FJ Rich, (2002), OVATION: Oval variation, assessment, tracking, intensity, and online nowcasting, Annales Geophysicae, 20, 1039-1047

Solar wind density and velocity control of auroral brightness under normal interplanetary magnetic field conditions

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2002
JH Shue, PT Newell, K Liou, CI Meng, (2002), Solar wind density and velocity control of auroral brightness under normal interplanetary magnetic field conditions, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 107

Interplanetary magnetic field B-x asymmetry effect on auroral brightness

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2002
JH Shue, PT Newell, K Liou, CI Meng, SWH Cowley, (2002), Interplanetary magnetic field B-x asymmetry effect on auroral brightness, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 107

Two-component auroras

Geophysical Research Letters, 2002
JH Shue, PT Newell, K Liou, CI Meng, Y Kamide, RP Lepping, (2002), Two-component auroras, Geophysical Research Letters, 29

Correlative study of ultraviolet aurora and low-latitude Pi2 pulsations

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2002
K Takahashi, K Liou, K Yumoto, (2002), Correlative study of ultraviolet aurora and low-latitude Pi2 pulsations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 107

Statistical patterns in X-ray and UV auroral emissions and energetic electron precipitation

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
PC Anderson, SM Petrinec, K Liou, (2001), Statistical patterns in X-ray and UV auroral emissions and energetic electron precipitation, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5907-5911

Plasmoid ejection and auroral brightenings

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
A Ieda, DH Fairfield, T Mukai, Y Saito, S Kokubun, K Liou, CI Meng, GK Parks, MJ Brittnacher, (2001), Plasmoid ejection and auroral brightenings, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 3845-3857

Particle injections with auroral expansions

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
K Liou, CI Meng, PT Newell, ATY Lui, GD Reeves, RD Belian, (2001), Particle injections with auroral expansions, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5873-5881

Seasonal effects on auroral particle acceleration and precipitation

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
K Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, (2001), Seasonal effects on auroral particle acceleration and precipitation, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5531-5542

Comment on "Evaluation of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations as indicators of substorm onset using Polar ultraviolet imagery" by K. Liou, et al. - Reply

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
K Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, K Takahashi, SI Ohtani, ATY Lui, M Brittnacher, G Parks, (2001), Comment on "Evaluation of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations as indicators of substorm onset using Polar ultraviolet imagery" by K. Liou, et al. - Reply, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 18923-18926

Observation of IMF and seasonal effects in the location of auroral substorm onset

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
K Liou, PT Newell, DG Sibeck, CI Meng, M Brittnacher, G Parks, (2001), Observation of IMF and seasonal effects in the location of auroral substorm onset, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5799-5810

Asymmetric sunlight effect on dayside/nightside auroral precipitation

Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part C-Solar-Terrestial and Planetary Science, 2001
CI Meng, K Liou, PT Newell, (2001), Asymmetric sunlight effect on dayside/nightside auroral precipitation, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part C-Solar-Terrestial and Planetary Science, 26, 43-47

Flow bursts and auroral activations: Onset timing and foot point location

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
R Nakamura, W Baumjohann, M Brittnacher, VA Sergeev, M Kubyshkina, T Mukai, K Liou, (2001), Flow bursts and auroral activations: Onset timing and foot point location, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 10777-10789

Earthward flow bursts, auroral streamers, and small expansions

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
R Nakamura, W Baumjohann, R Schodel, M Brittnacher, VA Sergeev, M Kubyshkina, T Mukai, K Liou, (2001), Earthward flow bursts, auroral streamers, and small expansions, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 10791-10802

Auroral precipitation power during substorms: A Polar UV Imager-based superposed epoch analysis

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
PT Newell, K Liou, T Sotirelis, CI Meng, (2001), Auroral precipitation power during substorms: A Polar UV Imager-based superposed epoch analysis, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 28885-28896

Polar Ultraviolet Imager observations of global auroral power as a function of polar cap size and magnetotail stretching

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
PT Newell, K Liou, T Sotirelis, CI Meng, (2001), Polar Ultraviolet Imager observations of global auroral power as a function of polar cap size and magnetotail stretching, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5895-5905

Substorm and convection bay compared: Auroral and magnetotail dynamics during convection bay

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
VA Sergeev, MV Kubyshkina, K Liou, PT Newell, G Parks, R Nakamura, T Mukai, (2001), Substorm and convection bay compared: Auroral and magnetotail dynamics during convection bay, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 18843-18855

Influence of interplanetary magnetic field on global auroral patterns

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
JH Shue, PT Newell, K Liou, CI Meng, (2001), Influence of interplanetary magnetic field on global auroral patterns, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5913-5926

The quantitative relationship between auroral brightness and solar EUV Pedersen conductance

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
JH Shue, PT Newell, K Liou, CI Meng, (2001), The quantitative relationship between auroral brightness and solar EUV Pedersen conductance, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5883-5894

Auroral polar cap boundary ion conic outflow observed on FAST

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
YK Tung, CW Carlson, JP McFadden, DM Klumpar, GK Parks, WJ Peria, K Liou, (2001), Auroral polar cap boundary ion conic outflow observed on FAST, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 3603-3614

Polar UVI observations of dayside auroral transient events

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
VG Vorobjev, OI Yagodkina, DG Sibeck, K Liou, CI Meng, (2001), Polar UVI observations of dayside auroral transient events, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 28897-28911

Aurora conjugacy during substorms: Coordinated antarctic ground and polar ultraviolet observations

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2001
VG Vorobjev, OI Yagodkina, D Sibeck, K Liou, CI Meng, (2001), Aurora conjugacy during substorms: Coordinated antarctic ground and polar ultraviolet observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 24579-24591

Estimation of global field aligned currents using the Iridium((R)) System magnetometer data

Geophysical Research Letters, 2001
CL Waters, BJ Anderson, K Liou, (2001), Estimation of global field aligned currents using the Iridium((R)) System magnetometer data, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 2165-2168

Global Positioning System phase fluctuations and ultraviolet images from the Polar satellite

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2000
J Aarons, B Lin, M Mendillo, K Liou, M Codrescu, (2000), Global Positioning System phase fluctuations and ultraviolet images from the Polar satellite, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 105, 5201-5213

"Blob" analysis of auroral substorm dynamics

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2000
JF Carbary, K Liou, ATY Lui, PT Newell, CI Meng, (2000), "Blob" analysis of auroral substorm dynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 105, 16083-16091

Auroral kilometric radiation at substorm onset

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2000
K Liou, CI Meng, ATY Lui, PT Newell, RR Anderson, (2000), Auroral kilometric radiation at substorm onset, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 105, 25325-25331

Evaluation of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations as indicators of substorm onset using Polar ultraviolet imagery

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 2000
K Liou, CI Meng, PT Newell, K Takahashi, SI Ohtani, ATY Lui, M Brittnacher, G Parks, (2000), Evaluation of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations as indicators of substorm onset using Polar ultraviolet imagery, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 105, 2495-2505

Is the dynamic magnetosphere an avalanching system?

Geophysical Research Letters, 2000
ATY Lui, SC Chapman, K Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, M Brittnacher, GD Parks, (2000), Is the dynamic magnetosphere an avalanching system?, Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 911-914

Conjunction of tail satellites for substorm study: ISTP event of 1997 January 2

Geophysical Research Letters, 2000
ATY Lui, K Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, S Ohtani, RW McEntire, NJ Fox, RP Lepping, WR Paterson, JB Sigwarth, LA Frank, S Kokubun, GK Parks, T Moretto, K Yumoto, (2000), Conjunction of tail satellites for substorm study: ISTP event of 1997 January 2, Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 1831-1834

Multiple-spacecraft observation of a narrow transient plasma jet in the Earth's plasma sheet

Geophysical Research Letters, 2000
VA Sergeev, JA Sauvaud, D Popescu, RA Kovrazhkin, K Liou, PT Newell, M Brittnacher, G Parks, R Nakamura, T Mukai, GD Reeves, (2000), Multiple-spacecraft observation of a narrow transient plasma jet in the Earth's plasma sheet, Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 851-854

Study of a sequence of substorm onsets on the basis of coordinated ground-satellite observations

Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B-Hydrology Oceans and Atmosphere, 2000
VR Tagirov, K Liou, DG Sibeck, VA Arinin, (2000), Study of a sequence of substorm onsets on the basis of coordinated ground-satellite observations, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B-Hydrology Oceans and Atmosphere, 25, 559-563

On relative timing in substorm onset signatures

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 1999
K Liou, CI Meng, TY Lui, PT Newell, M Brittnacher, G Parks, GD Reeves, RR Anderson, K Yumoto, (1999), On relative timing in substorm onset signatures, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 104, 22807-22817

Source region of 1500 MLT auroral bright spots: Simultaneous Polar UV-images and DMSP particle data

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 1999
K Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, T Sotirelis, M Brittnacher, G Parks, (1999), Source region of 1500 MLT auroral bright spots: Simultaneous Polar UV-images and DMSP particle data, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 104, 24587-24602

Near-Earth dipolarization: Evidence for a non-MHD process

Geophysical Research Letters, 1999
ATY Lui, K Liou, M Nose, S Ohtani, DJ Williams, T Mukai, K Tsuruda, S Kokubun, (1999), Near-Earth dipolarization: Evidence for a non-MHD process, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 2905-2908

Dynamics of double-theta aurora: Polar UVI study of January 10-11, 1997

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 1999
PT Newell, K Liou, CI Meng, MJ Brittnacher, G Parks, (1999), Dynamics of double-theta aurora: Polar UVI study of January 10-11, 1997, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 104, 95-104

Development of auroral streamers in association with localized impulsive injections to the inner magnetotail

Geophysical Research Letters, 1999
VA Sergeev, K Liou, CI Meng, PT Newell, M Brittnacher, G Parks, GD Reeves, (1999), Development of auroral streamers in association with localized impulsive injections to the inner magnetotail, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 417-420

Comprehensive study of the magnetospheric response to a hot flow anomaly

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 1999
DG Sibeck, NL Borodkova, SJ Schwartz, CJ Owen, R Kessel, S Kokubun, RP Lepping, R Lin, H Luhr, RW McEntire, CI Meng, T Mukai, Z Nemecek, G Parks, TD Phan, SA Romanov, J Safrankova, JA Sauvaud, HJ Singer, SI Solovyev, A Szabo, K Takahashi, DJ Williams, K Yumoto, GN Zastenker, (1999), Comprehensive study of the magnetospheric response to a hot flow anomaly, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 104, 4577-4593

Global substorm effect and convection jet under the conditions of continuous external driving: Multi-spacecraft observations on December 22-23, 1996

Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, 1999
YI Yermolaev, LM Zelenyi, NL Borodkova, RA Kovrazhkin, VN Lutsenko, AA Petrukovich, SP Savin, AA Skalsky, VA Sergeev, T Mukai, S Kokubun, K Liou, CI Meng, G Parks, JA Sauvaud, (1999), Global substorm effect and convection jet under the conditions of continuous external driving: Multi-spacecraft observations on December 22-23, 1996, Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, 49, 625-640

ULF field fluctuations in a "quiet" subsolar magnetosheath

Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 1998
K Liou, CA Lin, (1998), ULF field fluctuations in a "quiet" subsolar magnetosheath, Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 9, 1-14

Characteristics of the solar wind controlled auroral emissions

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 1998
K Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, N Brittnacher, G Parks, (1998), Characteristics of the solar wind controlled auroral emissions, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 103, 17543-17557

Ionospheric signature of a magnetic flux rope in the magnetotail

Geophysical Research Letters, 1998
ATY Lui, MJ Brittnacher, SP Christon, TE Eastman, S Kokubun, K Liou, RW McEntire, CI Meng, PT Newell, GK Parks, T Yamamoto, DJ Williams, (1998), Ionospheric signature of a magnetic flux rope in the magnetotail, Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 3733-3736

Plasma and magnetic flux transport associated with auroral breakups

Geophysical Research Letters, 1998
ATY Lui, K Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, SI Ohtani, T Ogino, S Kokubun, MJ Brittnacher, GK Parks, (1998), Plasma and magnetic flux transport associated with auroral breakups, Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 4059-4062

Dayside auroral activity as a possible precursor of substorm onsets: A survey using Polar ultraviolet imagery

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 1997
E Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, ATY Lui, M Brittnacher, G Parks, (1997), Dayside auroral activity as a possible precursor of substorm onsets: A survey using Polar ultraviolet imagery, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 102, 19835-19843

Synoptic auroral distribution: A survey using polar ultraviolet imagery

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 1997
K Liou, PT Newell, CI Meng, M Brittnacher, G Parks, (1997), Synoptic auroral distribution: A survey using polar ultraviolet imagery, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 102, 27197-27205

Momentum coupling in the ''CRIT II'' critical ionization velocity experiment

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 1996
K Liou, RB Torbert, G Haerendel, (1996), Momentum coupling in the ''CRIT II'' critical ionization velocity experiment, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 101, 19649-19657

ON BA+ PRODUCTION IN THE CRIT-II EXPERIMENT

Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 1995
K LIOU, RB TORBERT, (1995), ON BA+ PRODUCTION IN THE CRIT-II EXPERIMENT, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 100, 5811-5818

OBSERVATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC OXYGEN CYCLOTRON WAVES IN A FLICKERING AURORA

Geophysical Research Letters, 1995
EJ LUND, J LABELLE, RB TORBERT, K LIOU, W PERIA, CA KLETZING, MC KELLEY, SD BAKER, F PRIMDAHL, HC STENBAEKNIELSEN, A RANTA, G HAERENDEL, HU FREY, (1995), OBSERVATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC OXYGEN CYCLOTRON WAVES IN A FLICKERING AURORA, Geophysical Research Letters, 22, 2465-2468

PROMPT IONIZATION IN THE CRIT-II BARIUM RELEASES

Geophysical Research Letters, 1992
RB TORBERT, CA KLETZING, K LIOU, D RAU, (1992), PROMPT IONIZATION IN THE CRIT-II BARIUM RELEASES, Geophysical Research Letters, 19, 973-976